Operational Ice Service Publication and Reports

The following references contain a comprehensive list of publications and reports related to national and international sea ice operations, operational charts and the use of ice charts, either directly or indirectly. The following information is relevant for all operational ice services.


Arctic Climatology Project. 2000. Environmental Working Group joint U.S.-Russian sea ice atlas. Edited by F. Tanis and V. Smolyanitsky. Ann Arbor, MI: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in association with the National Snow and Ice Data Center. CD-ROM.

Agnew, T., and S. Howell. 2002. Comparison of digitized Canadian ice charts and passive microwave sea-ice concentrations. IGARSS 2002, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Conference Proceedings. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7969/22036/01024996.pdf. Accessed 25 September 2006.

Agnew, T., and S. Howell. 2003. The use of operational ice charts for evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data, Atmosphere-Ocean 41 (4), 317-331.

Arkett,M.,  D. Flett, R. De Abreu, P. Clemente-Colon, J. Woods and B. Melchior, "Evaluating ALOS-PALSAR for Ice Monitoring - What Can L-band do for the North American Ice Service?," IGARSS 2008 - 2008 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2008, pp. V - 188-V - 191, doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4780059.

Bertoia, C., J. Falkingham and F. Fetterer. 1998. Polar SAR data for operational sea ice mapping. In Analysis of SAR Data of the Polar Oceans. Edited by C. Tsatsoulis and R. Kwok, 201-234. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Bertoia, C., M. Manore, and H. S. Andersen. 2001. Mapping ice covered waters from space. Backscatter 12 (3) , 14-22.

Brodzik, M. J. and K. W. Knowles. 2002. "EASE-Grid: a versatile set of equal-area projections and grids." In M. Goodchild, ed. Discrete Global Grids. Santa Barbara, CA, USA: National Center for Geographic Information & Analysis.

Cafarella, Silvie & Scharien, Randall & Geldsetzer, Torsten & Howell, Stephen & Haas, Christian & Segal, Rebecca & Nasonova, Sasha. (2019). Estimation of Level and Deformed First-Year Sea Ice Surface Roughness in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from C- and L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. 45. 1-19. 10.1080/07038992.2019.1647102.

Canadian Ice Service. 1992. Ice thickness climatology, 1961 - 1990 normals. Minis. Supply Serv. Can. En. 57-28. Can. Commun. Group, Ottawa, Ont. 277 pp.

Canadian Ice Service, . 2009. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format, Version 1. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: https://doi.org/10.7265/N51V5BW9. [Date Accessed].

Carrieres, T., Buehner, M., Lemieux, J., Pedersen, L., Caya, A., Hughes, N., . . . Axell, L. (2017). Current Ice Services and Their Expected Evolution. In T. Carrieres, M. Buehner, J. Lemieux, & L. Toudal Pedersen (Eds.), Sea Ice Analysis and Forecasting: Towards an Increased Reliance on Automated Prediction Systems (pp. 174-199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108277600.008.

Carrieres, T. 2000. Documentation for the Canadian Ice Service digital sea ice database. Can. Ice Serv., Ottawa, Ontario. 49 pp.

Cheng, A., Casati, B., Tivy, A., Zagon, T., Lemieux, J. F., & Tremblay, L. B. (2020). Accuracy and inter-analyst agreement of visually estimated sea ice concentrations in Canadian Ice Service ice charts using single-polarization RADARSAT-2. The Cryosphere, 14(4), 1289-1310. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-1289-2020 

Comiso, J. C., and R. Kwok. 1996. Surface and radiative characteristics of the summer Arctic sea ice cover from multi-sensor satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 101 (C12): 28, 397-28, 416.

Dabboor, Mohammed & Montpetit, B. & Howell, Stephen & Haas, Christian. (2017). Improving Sea Ice Characterization in Dry Ice Winter Conditions Using Polarimetric Parameters from C- and L-Band SAR Data. Remote Sensing. 9. 1270. 10.3390/rs9121270.

Dahlke, S., Hughes, N. E., Wagner, P. M., Gerland, S., Wawrzyniak, T., Ivanov, B., & Maturilli, M. (2020). The observed recent surface air temperature development across Svalbard and concurring footprints in local sea ice cover. International Journal of Climatology, 40(12), 5246-5265. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6517 

de Vos, Marc & Ramjukadh, Carla-Louise & Lyttle, Casey & Villiers, Mardene & Vichi, Marcello & Rautenbach, Christo & Barnes, Michael. (2019). Towards Sea Ice Charting Services in South Africa: An Overview of Activities. 10.13140/RG.2.2.10020.22405/1. 

DeAbreu, R. J. Yackel, D. Barber, M. Arkett. 2001. Operational satellite sensing of Arctic first-year sea ice melt. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 27(5), 487-501.

Dedrick, K., K. Partington, M. Van Woert, C. A. Bertoia, and D. Benner. 2001. U. S. National/Naval Ice Center Digital Sea Ice Data and Climatology. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 27(5), 457-475.

Dirkson, A., Denis, B., & Merryfield, W. J. (2019). A multimodel approach for improving seasonal probabilistic forecasts of regional Arctic sea ice. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 10844– 10853. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083831.

Environment Canada, 2005. Manual of Standard Procedures for Observing and Reporting Ice Conditions (MANICE). Issuing authority: Assistant Deputy Minister, Meteorological Service of Canada. Available online at:  https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/weather-manuals-documentation/manice-manual-of-ice.html

Fetterer, F., compiler. 2006. A selection of documentation related to National Ice Center sea ice charts in digital format. NSIDC Special Report 13. Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Fetterer, F., and V. Troisi. 1997. AARI 10-Day Arctic Ocean EASE-Grid sea ice observations. Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998. Observations of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (C11): 24, 821-24, 835.

Geiger, C. 2006. Propagation of uncertainties in sea ice thickness calculations from basin-scale operational observations: A report prepared for the International Ice Charting Working Group and the National/Naval Ice Center. ERDC/CRREL TR-06-16. 39 pp.

Hughes, Nicholas & Wagner, Penelope. (2015). Knowledge and Forecasts of Sea Ice Extent and Icebergs - “Barents Sea SE” and “Jan Mayen”. 10.13140/RG.2.1.5003.6562. 

Humpert, M., & Raspotnik, A. (2012). The Future of Arctic Shipping Along the Transpolar Sea Route. In L. Heininen (Ed.), Arctic Yearbook 2012. on-line: https://arcticyearbook.com/arctic-yearbook/2012: University of the Arctic.

Jeffers, S., T. A. Agnew, B. T. Alt, R. De Abreu and S. McCourt. 2001. Investigating the anomalous sea ice conditions in the Canadian High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands) during summer of 1998. Annals of Glaciology 33, 507-512.

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. 2004. SIGRID-3 : a vector archive format for sea ice charts / developed by the International Ice Charting Working Group's ad hoc format team for the WMO Global Digital Sea Ice Data Bank Project. (Geneva) : World Meteorological Organization ; (Paris) : Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Jeuring, J., Knol-Kauffman, M., & Sivle, A. (2020). Toward valuable weather and sea-ice services for the marine Arctic: exploring user–producer interfaces of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Polar Geography, 43(2-3), 139-159. 

Karvonen,J.  "Baltic Sea Ice Concentration Estimation From C-Band Dual-Polarized SAR Imagery by Image Segmentation and Convolutional Neural Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2021.3097885.

Karvonen,J.  "Baltic Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Based on C-Band HH-Polarized SAR Data," in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1874-1884, Dec. 2012, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2012.2209199.

Karvonen, J.: Operational SAR-based sea ice drift monitoring over the Baltic Sea, Ocean Sci., 8, 473–483, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-473-2012, 2012.

Karvonen, J., Vainio, J., Marnela, M., Eriksson, P., & Niskanen, T. (2015). A comparison between high-resolution EO-based and ice analyst-assigned sea ice concentrations. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 8(4), 1799-1807. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2426414 

Karvonen, J., Rinne, E., Sallila, H., & Mäkynen, M. (2020). On suitability of ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 dual-polarized SAR data for Arctic sea ice parameter estimation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 58(11), 7969-7981. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2020.2985696

Karvonon,J., J. Vainio, M. Marnela, P. Eriksson, and T. Niskanen (2015) A comparison between high-resolution EO-based and ice analyst-assigned sea ice concentrations,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1799–1807. 

Khaleghian, S., Ullah, H., Kræmer, T., Hughes, N., Eltoft, T., & Marinoni, A. (2021). Sea Ice Classification of SAR Imagery Based on Convolution Neural Networks. Remote Sensing, 13(9), 1734. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091734 

Knight, R. W. 1984. Introduction to a new sea-ice database. Annals of Glaciology 5. (Reproduced in NSIDC Special Report 13).

Kokaly, R. F. 1996. Methods for regridding AARI data in SIGRID format to the EASE-Grid projection. NSIDC Special Report 9.

Kokaly, R.F. 1996. NSIDC Special Report 6: An evaluation of the results from using nearest neighbor and area min/max resampling methods to regrid AARI digitized sea ice charts to EASE-Grid.

Kwok, R. 2002. Sea ice concentration estimates from satellite passive microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (9): 10.1029/202GL014787.

Maillard, P. and D. A. Clausi. 2005. Operational map-guided classification of SAR sea ice imagery. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 43, No. 12, pp 2940-2951, doi 10.1109/TGRS.2005.857897

Mäkynen, Marko; Haapala, Jari; Aulicino, Giuseppe; Balan-Sarojini, Beena; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Gegiuc, Alexandru; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Hendricks, Stefan; Heygster, Georg; Istomina, Larysa; Kaleschke, Lars; Karvonen, Juha; Krumpen, Thomas; Lensu, Mikko; Mayer, Michael; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Ricker, Robert; Rinne, Eero; Schmitt, Amelie; Similä, Markku; Tietsche, Steffen; Tonboe, Rasmus; Wadhams, Peter; Winstrup, Mai; Zuo, Hao. 2020. "Satellite Observations for Detecting and Forecasting Sea-Ice Conditions: A Summary of Advances Made in the SPICES Project by the EU’s Horizon 2020 Programme" Remote Sens. 12, no. 7: 1214. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071214

Mahoney, A.R., Barry, R.G., Smolyanitsky, V. and Fetterer, F. (2008). Observed sea ice extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933–2006. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(C11).

‌Mäkynen, Marko; Karvonen, Juha; Cheng, Bin; Hiltunen, Mwaba; Eriksson, Patrick B. 2020. "Operational Service for Mapping the Baltic Sea Landfast Ice Properties" Remote Sens. 12, no. 24: 4032. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12244032

McKenna, P., and W. N. Meier. 2002. SSM/I sea ice algorithm inter-comparison: Operational case studies from the National Ice Center, IGARSS Proceedings, INT_A32_04, Toronto, 24-28 June 2002.

Meier, W. N, M. L. van Woert, and C. Bertoia. 2001. Evaluation of operational SSM/I ice concentration algorithms, Ann. Glaciology, 33, 102-108.

Meier, Walter, 2005. Comparison of Passive Microwave Ice Concentration Algorithm Retrievals With AVHRR Imagery in Arctic Peripheral Seas. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 40, No. 6, pp 1324-1334.

Meier, W. N., F. Fetterer, C. Fowler, P. Clemente-Colón, T. Street, Operational sea ice charts: An integrated data product suitable for observing long-term changes in Arctic sea ice?, poster presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, 2006, and available on the NSIDC Posters and Presentations page.

Meier, W. N, M. L. van Woert, and C. Bertoia. 2001. Evaluation of operational SSM/I ice concentration algorithms, Ann. Glaciology, 33, 102-108.

Meier, W. N., T. Maksym and M.L. Van Woert, Evaluation of Arctic operational passive microwave products: a case study in the Barents Sea during October 2001. Ice in the Environment: Proceedings of the 16th IAHR International Symposium on Ice, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2nd-6th December 2002, International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research

Meier, W.N., F. Fetterer, J. Scott Stewart, and S. Helfrich. 2015. How do sea ice concentrations from operational data compare with passive microwave estimates? Implications for improved model evaluations and forecasting. Annals of Glaciology 56(69): 332-340. doi:10.3189/2015AoG69A694.

Melling, H. 2002. Sea ice of the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. J. Geophys. Res., 107, C11, 3181, doi:10.1029/2001JC001102.

Melsom, A., Palerme, C., and Müller, M.: Validation metrics for ice edge position forecasts, Ocean Sci., 15, 615–630, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-15-615-2019, 2019.

Nasonova, Sasha & Scharien, Randall & Geldsetzer, Torsten & Howell, Stephen & Power, Desmond. (2019). Optimal Compact Polarimetric Parameters and Texture Features for Discriminating Sea Ice Types during Winter and Advanced Melt. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. 44. 1-21. 10.1080/07038992.2018.1527683.

Palerme, Cyril & Müller, Malte & Melsom, Arne. (2019). An Intercomparison of Verification Scores for Evaluating the Sea Ice Edge Position in Seasonal Forecasts. Geophysical Research Letters. 46. 10.1029/2019GL082482.

Partington, K., T. Flynn, D. Lamb, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick., 2003. Late twentieth century Northern Hemisphere sea-ice record from U.S. National Ice Center ice charts, J. Geophys. Res., 108, C11, 3343, doi:10.1029/2002JC001623.

Rainville, Luc, Jeremy Wilkinson, Mary Ellen J. Durley, Scott Harper, Julia DiLeo, Martin J. Doble, Andrew Fleming et al. "Improving Situational Awareness in the Arctic Ocean." Frontiers in Marine Science 7 (2020): 1024. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.581139

Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L.V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan. 2003. Global analysis of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. Journal of Geophysical Research. 108 (D14). doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.

Ropelewski, C. F. 1983. Spatial and temporal variations in Antarctic sea ice (1973-82). Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, vol 22, 470-473.

Singarayer, J. S., P. J. Valdes, and J. L. Bamber. 2005. The atmospheric impact of uncertainties in recent Arctic sea ice reconstructions, Journal of Climate, 18, 3996-4012.

Singha, S., Johansson, M., Hughes, N., Hvidegaard, S., & Skourup, H. (2018). Arctic Sea ice characterization using spaceborne fully polarimetric L-, C-and X-band SAR with validation by airborne measurements. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2018.2809504

Uiboupin, Rivo & Axell, Lars & Raudsepp, Urmas & Sipelgas, Liis. (2010). Comparison of operational ice charts with satellite based ice concentration products in the Baltic Sea. 1 - 8. 10.1109/BALTIC.2010.5621649.

van Woert., M. 2002. U. S. Navy operational sea ice remote sensing. IGARSS Proceedings, INT_A32_04, Toronto, 24-28 June 2002.

Wagner, P. M., Hughes, N., Bourbonnais, P., Stroeve, J., Rabenstein, L., Bhatt, U., . . . Fleming, A. (2020). Sea-ice information and forecast needs for industry maritime stakeholders. Polar Geography, 43(2-3), 160-187. 

Willis, Z. M, Foster, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick. 2000. National Ice Center/Naval Ice Center support to submarine operations Undersea Warfare: Issue 8, pp. 18-21.

WMO Sea-Ice Nomenclature: Nomenclature. https://library.wmo.int/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=6772#.YK9IAKIzaV4

WMO Ice Chart Colour Code Standard, Version 1.0, 2014. https://repository.oceanbestpractices.org/handle/11329/99 

Zakhvatkina, Natalia & Smirnov, V.G. & Bychkova, Irina. (2019). Satellite SAR Data-based Sea Ice Classification: An Overview. Geosciences. 9. 152. 10.3390/geosciences9040152. 

Zhang, Y., Zhu, T., Spreen, G., Melsheimer, C., Huntemann, M., Hughes, N., Zhang, S., and Li, F.: Sea ice and water classification on dual-polarized Sentinel-1 imagery during melting season, The Cryosphere Discuss. [preprint], https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2021-85, in review, 2021.